On February 12, 2015 Myanmar president Thein Sein, prompted by protests led by Buddhist monks in Yangon, reversed a decision made ten days earlier to give voting rights to the country's Rohingya population. The reversal, while surprising to some, was only the latest in a series of events to befall the Muslim minority who call western Myanmar's Rakhine State home.
The Rohingya of Myanmar have lost more than voting rights in the past. Regarded as one of the world's most oppressed peoples, the Rohingya are a distinct ethnic group that speak a dialect of Bengali and are thought to be descended from Arab and Persian traders.
Persecuted at home
Under the military junta that ruled Myanmar for most of the latter twentieth century, and now with the current, nominally civilian government, Myanmar's Rohingya have suffered chronic poverty, food insecurity, harassment and forced labor, among other human rights abuses. Following Burma's 1982 Citizenship Law, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya were denied citizenship and are still today referred to as 'aliens' and 'foreigners' by the government. They are neither allowed to travel outside their hometown nor marry without official approval.
Poor relations between the Muslim Rohingya and their neighbors have only made things worse. Tensions between Rakhine State's Muslim population and the majority Rakhine ethnicity, who are Buddhist, boiled over in 2012, leading to anti-Muslim riots that spread across the country. In Rakhine alone, over 200 people were killed and whole villages were burned to the ground. Conditions have not improved since. The current crisis of thousands of Bengali and Rohingya refugees stranded off the coasts of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia is a direct consequence of awful conditions at home.
The Rohingya, however are certainly not the only group struggling in Myanmar. Despite what appears to be a nascent democracy, a civil war between the government and an array of armed ethnic groups along the country's periphery has flickered continuously since the 1950s. The reasons for the conflicts are many, though issues of ethnic autonomy and control of precious resources like jade and timber loom large.
The conflict's latest iteration began in February 2015 and is still ongoing. A flare up of tensions between the Myanmar Army and Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA) in Kokang, Shan State, has killed hundreds and forced tens of thousands of civilians to flee across the border into China.
Many Rohingya have also left Myanmar over the past few decades. Tens of thousands of them reside in under-equipped refugee camps on the Myanmar-Bangladesh border, though others have escaped to new lives abroad. Their final destinations vary, but the majority resides in Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Thailand and Pakistan. Of these Rohingya living overseas, who may number over one million, most work low-wage jobs in the construction and service industries. There are some, however, that have chosen a different path in a land closer to home.
Eight hundred kilometers east of Rakhine State in Jinghong, China, Abedullah owns a small jewelry shop. It's three o'clock in the afternoon he hasn't sold a thing. Abedullah Rohingya, but he has not lived in Myanmar in thirteen years. Instead, he's settled in Jinghong, the capital of Yunnan Province's Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, along with almost 600 other Rohingya. All of them sell jade.
According to Abedullah, who only agreed to give his first name, Rohingya merchants first came to Jinghong almost forty years ago. Following the end of the bloody Bangladesh War of Independence in 1973, hundreds of thousands of refugees fled into neighboring Burma. Marginalized by the Burmese and eventually disavowed by the Bangladeshi government, tens of thousands then fled further overseas. A handful made it to southwest China's Yunnan province.
Stories of Jinghong's first Rohingya are hard to find and by all accounts, as the number of émigrés remained small until the 1990s. It was then that the Chinese economy began to truly open up to the international market. As trade increased and more Chinese became wealthy, the country's jewelry consumption level grew as well, skyrocketing over 4,000 percent in a decade. While all gemstones have grown in popularity in recent decades, none hold the place in Chinese culture that jade does. Regarded as a stone of mystical qualities since antiquity, jade is the king of gemstones in China and it is in Myanmar that the world's highest quality jade is found.
As a result, jade shops are ubiquitous in dozens of towns along the volatile China-Myanmar border. Jinghong is one of the largest. Straddling the Mekong River, this once sleepy town has grown into a city of six hundred-thousand and now hosts millions of tourists each year. Many of these visitors come looking to buy Burmese jade. As travelers flock to Jinghong in ever-greater numbers, Rohingya merchants with connections to the Burmese jade trade have followed to keep up with demand.
A new life
One of the recent arrivals is Xiao Fei, a 21 year-old who prefers his new Chinese nickname to his given name. Xiao Fei, like many other Rohingya in Jinghong, came at the behest of his family — his grandfather having first arrived in the city almost thirty years ago. After saving enough money for a passport, Xiao Fei was able to leave his home in Yangon and help his grandfather set up the family's second shop.
Xiao Fei had to save up for his passport because getting such a document is often impossible for Rohingya in Myanmar. Since they are officially considered to be foreigners by the Burmese government, Rohingya can only obtain passports after paying expensive bribes to the right people. That is why, as Xiao Fei explains, "Only rich Rohingya can make it to China."
Once in Jinghong, new arrivals find an environment altogether strange and inviting. The forest of newly-built apartment complexes and hotels certainly dwarfs anything found in Rakhine State and the hundreds of established Rohingya businessmen form a tight community that provides everything from religious services to a lunchtime delivery service of halal cuisine.
It is the mosque that is the heart of the community, says Waynai, a trader who has lived in Jinghong for six years. The Jinghong Mosque, located not far from the banks of the Mekong, was first established decades ago by the city's existing community of Hui, a distinct ethnic group of more than ten million people that practice Islam and speak Mandarin Chinese.
When the Rohingya began to move to Jinghong in greater numbers in the late 1990s, they became a part of the congregation, eventually joined by a small population of Uighurs from China's northwest. Together, these three groups of Muslims manage the mosque. Despite disparate geographic and cultural backgrounds, the house of worship is thriving with a healthy number of members, daily prayers held in Arabic and discussion groups where participants speak standard Chinese.
However both Waynai and Abedullah agree more with the mosque's Uighur members on theological questions. When asked whether or not he had any non-Rohingya friends from the congregation, Abedullah answers, "Yes, but not the Hui. They're fake...they don't have Allah in their hearts." Instead, it is the Uighur community that he feels closer to. "[The Rohingya] are similar to the Uighurs because...we both have to struggle to survive."
This struggle is why Ba Hlaing, a 31 year-old jade dealer, came to Jinghong eight years ago. At the time, his family lived comfortably in a suburb of Yangon but as he came of age, conditions for young Rohingya grew more difficult. "I would've liked to stay with my family, but there wasn't anything to do, no money to make. It's because of [the government] that we're so backwards now," he says in a whirlwind of English, Mandarin and Jinghong dialect, slapping the table after each word.
As we talked, a Han Chinese couple enters the shop. He greets them using his best Mandarin, standing and saying, "Welcome to Ba Hlaing's Jewelry! We have the finest jade from Myanmar! Would you like to look at a bracelet?" After five minutes of browsing, the wife still has not decided on a piece and the husband, fidgeting, suggests heading back to their hotel. The couple leaves and Ba Hlaing sits down to light a cigarette. "That's how it goes," he sighs. Just like Abedullah, business is slow for Ba Hlaing, even during the high tourist season.
Ba Hlaing believes the drop in jade sales is a consequence of Chinese President Xi Jinping's much-publicized crackdown on corruption. Once-popular ostentatious displays of wealth, like jade pieces worth tens of thousands of dollars, are now frowned upon and officials that once frequented jade shops like Ba Hlaing's are staying away.
The jade, however, keeps flowing from Myanmar. Most of it is mined in a strip of remote jungle in Kachin State, in the country's northeast. Conditions in Myanmar's jade mines are notoriously dangerous and the towns that spring up around them are known as much for their drugs and guns as they are for their jade. However bad mining conditions are though, the money can be worth it for those who can make it. Official figures from Myanmar's government put jade exports at $1.4 billion between 2011 and 2014. Analysts from Harvard University's Ash Center disagree, estimating jade sales — both official and off the books — at US$8 billion for 2011 alone.
Once the raw jade has been extracted, it is sent to processing centers. The majority are located within Myanmar, in urban centers such as Mandalay and Yangon, where the jade is polished and crafted into a final product. The next step is to get it into China, where the market is.
Most traders interviewed for this article admitted that the majority of the jade they sold was actually smuggled into Yunnan. A few well-placed bribes on both sides of the border can get shipments of jade, transported in trucks, into China reliably. Once the jade is in Yunnan, it usually makes its way to Ruili, a major border crossing between China and Myanmar.
According to Ba Hlaing, many Rohingya traders in Jinghong have contacts in Ruili, usually family, that buys the jade. Others, however, are directly connected to processing centers, most often in Yangon. For more valuable pieces, with sale prices upwards of US$50,000, many traders will use air transport to ensure safe arrival. While import taxes must be paid in these cases, the extra cost is often worth the peace of mind.
A tough decision
Peace of mind, however, is often hard to come by. With a slowdown in business and mounting issues back in Myanmar, many members of Jinghong's Rohingya community are facing the difficult decision of whether or not to return home. Ba Hlaing, for one, is planning on going back. Sales have decreased for the past two years and he fears that a protracted crackdown on corruption in China will keep jade sales low and prevent his shop from making a profit.
Despite the dire situation for the Rohingya in Myanmar, Ba Hlaing is choosing to remain positive. "I think things will get better for us," he says guardedly. "We have [this year's parliamentary] election and the world paying attention to us so democracy is a good thing." Abedullah, on the other hand, does not share Ba Hlaing's optimism. He does not want to return to Myanmar and sees little hope for democracy delivering the Rohingya from oppression.
"Things are a mess in Myanmar right now, everything is a mess," he says. "The economy is bad and the government and [the armed ethnic groups] are still fighting." When asked his thoughts on the country's armed conflicts, Abedullah pauses before exhaling heavily. "You know, we want to go to war too. At least [the armed ethnic groups] have guns. We don't have anything," he laments. "The government even took the knives from our houses...But then they still call us terrorists."